- The First World War : The Great War
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- Cause and Effect on World War 1 Essay - Words | Bartleby
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In what is now a crowded field, several works stand out for their singular contributions. Lentz-Smith considers how African American soldiers experienced a rising political consciousness, as did their civilian advocates. Williams provides an extensive investigation postwar veteran political activism within the African American community, which left many frustrated with the lack of racial progress.
Together, these works demonstrate how postwar veteran activism, not all of it successful, laid the groundwork for how activists would respond to the next world war. In several articles, I also trace how military service served as a vehicle for politicizing black soldiers by considering the structural, not just ideological, opportunities for soldiers to organize and how civil rights activists took up the banner of equal medical treatment for black veterans to advance the entire civil rights movement. Shall we admit them only to a partnership of suffering and sacrifice and toil and not to a partnership of privilege and right?
Capozzola and Lentz-Smith, for instance, discuss how middle-class women who belonged to an array of social clubs became essential grassroots organizers mobilizing white and black communities across the nation to support the war. The laurels bestowed on working-class women for their tireless sacrifice and volunteer activities, Capozzola argues, simply camouflaged state-sanctioned exploitation of unpaid female laborers.
Julia F. Women also served as vessels of memory in the postwar period, playing quasi-official roles in helping the nation commemorate the war. Lisa M. General John J. Stokes Company, These early accounts essentially set the parameters for the scholarly debate over how effectively Pershing led and the American Army fought. A revisionist school in the s and s viewed the high U. Timothy K. Nenninger and Paul Braim argued that AEF commanders made key mistakes that affected training, supply lines, and strategic decisions.
Rainey was scathing in his assessment of AEF doctrine, training, and combat performance.
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Cooperation, rather than the introduction of uniquely American strategies and values the Pershing view brought about victory, according to Michael S. His The Second Battle of the Marne Indiana University Press, offers the first monograph-length study of this pivotal battle in which British, French, and American forces fought together. Grotelueschen and Edward G.
Lengel shifted the focus to decision-making within companies and divisions rather than among the top-level leadership. These authors considered the average soldier experience while still writing in the genre of operational, military histories.
In Doughboys, the Great War and the Remaking of America Johns Hopkins University Press, I examined the internal strife over training, combat, discipline, race relations, and demobilization to argue that civilian soldiers exerted tremendous power in shaping the policies and behavior of the wartime military. They viewed British and French tactical innovations, especially improved coordination between infantry and artillery, as the key element ending the trench deadlock in The government and veterans organizations enshrined a different memory of the war in elaborate monuments, overseas cemeteries, and annual Armistice Day ceremonies which underscored the heroism and valor of American soldiers.
The desire to learn lessons from the war also permeated American political culture, as policymakers in the s tried to avoid the mistakes of their predecessors while crafting their own neutrality policies. Despite the high death toll 53, men in six months General John J. Pershing remained a publically revered figure.
Americans saved their animosity for Woodrow Wilson whose reputation plummeted in the post-war period. Fast forward another twenty-five years, and G. Piehler suggested that memorialization in the s took a utilitarian turn, with Americans choosing to remember the war by building edifices that improved community civic life.
The First World War : The Great War
Distance from the event, however, dimmed the connection that average American made between the war and eating their lunch in a Pershing Square or driving on an Argonne Street. This is now one of the promising and exciting areas of new scholarship, one that focuses on both how Americans remembered and why they forgot.
She focused on the controversies surrounding the burial of American war dead, especially the debate over whether a dead soldier became a private citizen or remained in service of the state. The government constructed overseas memorials and cemeteries to underscore the emergence of the United States as a permanent major world power by leaving a visible presence of American sacrifice for Europe. The cemeteries, however, had ample space between gravestones to camouflage the fact that so few American soldiers were buried in them.
Today it is mostly Europeans, not Americans, who visit these cemeteries. To explain why Americans forgot the devastating consequences of the influenza epidemic so quickly forgotten, Byerly and Bristow contend that American society privileged optimism and progress. Within this cultural environment sustained despair and grief were culturally unacceptable. Popular memory-makers novelists, playwrights, poets often borrowed from British modes of memory that emphasized the horrors of trench warfare, a trope that resonated poorly with American veterans who saw the war as reaffirming their valour and the exceptionalism of the United States.
The above discussion summarized how war memoires fueled veteran political activism. Memory of the war also remained strong within the African American community. Besides energizing the postwar civil rights movements, the war heavily influenced the art, prose, and poetry produced by Harlem Renaissance artists. Mark Whalen argues that this war-inspired cultural response, when put alongside the new political militancy, demonstrates how African Americans attached an empowering narrative to their memory of the war.
Their sense of betrayal, rather than leading to paralyzing disillusionment, instead emboldened African Americans to innovate with new art forms and political strategies.
Cause and Effect on World War 1 Essay - Words | Bartleby
Did the war signify triumph or tragedy; equality or discrimination; humanitarianism or imperialism; voluntarism or coercion; democracy or oppression? These questions are still with us, along with some new ones. American scholars have just begun to investigate the wide-range of American responses to the war during the period of neutrality, calling into question whether is even the right date for marking American entry into the war.
Similarly, the new work on disabled soldiers questions when the war ended for the individual soldier.
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Old questions or new, in many respects every scholarly account of the war written since its conclusion tries to offer a clear, compelling case for why the war mattered for the United States. Paxton analyze the impact of The Great War in modern aspect.
Where articles from New York Times during the time of the war gives the readers inside view of those who experiencing the war as it happen. Paxton does speak about impact of WW1 had on the lives of people during the time of war.
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One type of social impacted of the war is women were able…. This statement was obviously not accurate. There are many topics that caused WWI but the main causes are militarism, nationalism, the building of alliances and the assassination of Archduke Franz Ferdinand. The two alliances that fought against one another in this war were the Triple Entente which consisted of France, United Kingdom, Russia whose place in the war would later be taken by the United…. Chemical warfare is the use of toxins as a devastating weapon.
Although chemical weapons aren 't as prolific as during the WW1, they still pose a real threat. But there are organizations…. Millions died needlessly because military and civilian leaders were slow to adapt their old-fashioned strategies and tactics to the new weapons of New technology made war more horrible and more complex than ever before. The three main technological advancements where firstly, chemical warfare through the use of poison gas, which burned and blistered skin and destroyed the respiratory system as well as having inflicted widespread fear among the soldiers; secondly, the invention of….
Essays Essays FlashCards. Browse Essays. Show More. This was caused because of militarism, alliances, imperialism and nationalism. The four main causes that started the first world war. Militarism was one of the causes of the causes of the World War 1. One example is that Robert E. This primary source helps explain militarism was an underlying cause of the war because it states with war, you can gain success and prosperity. So much in the world was changed by this war, so it simply by most known as the Great War. It was the first war to affect all of the major nations of Europe and the world.
It took many lives and changed the lives of millions more. When discussing the First World War, there are a myriad of topics, theories and debates that can be brought up, especially when its regarding to its breakout and and what lead to it. There are multiple direct and indirect causes that all are interconnected with one another, making it very difficult to just discuss about one topic without it overlapping with another completely different topic.
One of the most unquestionable causes that lead to the outbreak of the war was the alliance system that was. Historical events are crucial in human thoughts since they understand themselves better in the present through analyzing their past occurrences. Historical events help us to know the causes of certain past events, therefore, making the cause to entail long-term ideology events and actions.
Positive impact of World War 1:
Nevertheless, the causes of certain events may differ depending on the scale of history. There were a number of causes of the First World War; due to the Treaty of Versailles, Germany accepted full responsibility for the war. Although the Germans had a large contribution in starting the war, they should not be fully held. Some of these weapons included tanks, chemical and biochemical weapons, grenades, and machine guns.
Chemical Warfare was used for the first time on a large scale in World War I. There are two main types of chemical warfare, one affects the surface of the body they come in contact with and the other affects the nervous system. Almost all chemical warfare weapons needed to be.