- Protestant, Catholic, Jew; an essay in American religious sociology
- Roman Catholicism | History, Definition, & Facts | hrersirawarphy.gq
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Enjoying this article? Click here to subscribe for full access. But the ones who are religious tend to be very fervently religious. Catholicism was first introduced in the 18th century by returning Confucian scholars from China, but they saw it more as an academic interest. It was the direct arrival of French and Chinese Catholic missionaries in the early 19th century that set off the first round of missionizing. At least Catholics were killed, and many have since been canonized, giving Korea the fourth largest number of saints of any nation. In , John Paul II canonized all at once.
Protestant, Catholic, Jew; an essay in American religious sociology
It was the arrival of Protestantism in the 19th century that changed everything. By this point the Joseon kings were fast losing power, their Chinese protectors were in decline, and an ascendant Japan, America and Russia were all eyeing the Korean peninsula. The country needed whatever grace God could give it. Christians were reputed to treat peasants with respect, as opposed to the scorn poured on them by the traditional nobility. Christianity became a source of resistance, especially to Japanese colonial rule, which began in and was famously brutal.
Though not all churches were anti-Japanese, many were. There was no help. Only God alone, they were so desperate. Grayson says that annexation provided a link between nationalism and Christianity. When the Japanese left in , the church was in high standing.
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They adapted American evangelical themes and worked hard at turning South Korea into a Christian nation. The s through s saw South Korea governed by a series of murderous strongmen and generals. Many Christian preachers were from the north — Pyongyang had been a hotbed of Christianity before the Korean War — and when they fled south they brought with them a virulent hatred of communism. Conservative, evangelical Christianity meshed well with the authoritarian, development-minded dictatorships, and the two forces reinforced each other.
And most certainly their Christian citizens from both left and right remained determined to influence U. Lyndon B.
Roman Catholicism | History, Definition, & Facts | hrersirawarphy.gq
Johnson was president at a time when new immigrants brought Hinduism, Islam, and Buddhism to an America witnessing the rise of Eastern and New Age spiritualities, with a Supreme Court reinforcing the constitutional separation between church and state. Johnson confronted criticism from Christian liberals and Christian realists increasingly alarmed by American imperialism and militarism; however, he was able to rely on vocal clerical support from Cardinal Spellman as well as Billy Graham.
We have a Vice-President who has clearly stated that one side could win a nuclear war and that we must be prepared to fight one and to win it. When we have that kind of thinking going on, it seems to me we are getting ever more close to the day when we will wage that nuclear war and it will be the war that will end the world as we know it. Reagan resurrected the Truman-Eisenhower morality play presentation of the Cold War as a Manichaean conflict.
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He emulated Eisenhower in recognizing the electoral importance of Christian voters. They are going to vote as a bloc for the man with the strongest moral and spiritual platform, regardless of his views on other matters. I believe we can hold the balance of power. Prior to this, in , John Paul II had, however inadvertently, legitimized deterrence, and hence U. In popular mythology, the born-again president partnered with the Polish pope to bring down the Soviet bloc.
The scholarly consensus is that the collapse of the Soviet bloc had more to do with internal rather than external pressures. To be put in the same framework as the S. An absolute verity of the Christian right is that American influence is a force for good in the world, reinforced by traditional conceits, all of which were forefronted during the Cold War, such as the American Commonwealth as the new Israel, a Chosen People, a new promised land, a redeemer nation.
All helped sanction territorial expansion, moralistic foreign policies, cultural imperialism, and unwarranted presumptions of innocence in world conflicts. The process served to reinforce the narrative of destiny and mission, a crucial rhetorical device for American leaders, and to affirm the victory of the American model of modernity, critical to the global dominance of capitalism over socialism. States, large and small, have traditionally mobilized their religious resources to legitimize their own policies while demonizing those of their enemies. However, the atavistic representation of what was in essence a clash of two rival models of modernity as a life and death struggle between the forces of good and evil, a struggle for the soul of the world, had profound consequences for America and the international community.
Let us not repeat the mistake of believing that either good or evil is total. Let us beware, in future, of wholly condemning an entire people and wholly exculpating others. Let us remember that the great moral issues, on which civilization is going to stand or fall, cut across all military and ideological borders, across peoples, classes, and regimes—across, in fact, the make-up of the individual himself.
No other people, as a whole, is entirely our enemy. No people at all—not even ourselves—is entirely our friend. The religious cold war ended with the collapse of the Soviet Union. In addition to a still-unfolding legacy, it highlighted worrying traits in American religion that still persist, not least the pursuit of salvation in history and the seeming faith that redemptive violence can save the world. However, Cold War scholars paid scant attention to religion prior to the turn of the century.
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The focus on Cold War culture in the s, following the unpredicted and relatively peaceful disintegration of the Soviet bloc, led to some consideration of religion in combination with culture. Geyer articulated concern about what he perceived as disturbing trends by conservative Christians to manipulate Cold War history. The contributions were critical in opening up the field. Ten years later another volume devoted to the subject area appeared. The new volume, edited by Philip E. Muehlenbeck, built on and extended the scope of the first, bringing in a range of new scholarship addressing non-Christian religions and a wider geographical spread, demonstrating that the field was now well established and attracting new scholars.
However, Muehlenbeck expressed reservations about some scholars who, he felt, overemphasized the importance of religion. Important contributions to the field, based on impeccable research, put forward new interpretations of Cold War history that required the personal faith of key policymakers be taken into consideration in assessing crucial Cold War decisions. Elizabeth Edwards Spalding argued that Cold War origins, early decisions, and policies could not be satisfactorily explained without reference to religion.
Jonathan P. Another important contribution came from a global research project involving ecumenical churchmen and Cold War scholars, Christian World Community and the Cold War , edited by Julius Filo. Notably, religion was treated very differently in two major new collections of Cold War scholarship. The Cambridge History of the Cold War , a three-volume affair published in , reverted to the practice of addressing religion in conjunction with culture. As new scholars enter the field and new archival evidence is explored, the subject will yield even more insights into the Cold War era.
Given that the Cold War period remains one of bitterly contested interpretations, it is almost inevitable that the same will be true of religion and the Cold War. Given the nature of religion, perhaps even more so. Boff, Leonardo. London: SCM Press, Find this resource:. Chernus, Ira. Chumachenko, Tatiana A. Armonk, NY: M. Sharpe, Edwards, Mark. Basingstoke, U. Gallagher, Charles R. Vatican Secret Diplomacy. New York: Orbis, Haberski, Raymond, Jr. Jacobs, Seth. Intervention in Southeast Asia, — Kalkandjieva, Daniela. The Russian Orthodox Church, — London: Routledge, Keeley, Theresa.
Kent, Peter. Kirby, Dianne. Church, State and Propaganda.
https://blowobwhooplyha.ml Hull, U. Edited by Klaus Larres. Oxford: Blackwell, Reports and Studies in Education, Humanities, and Theology.