Research paper on smoking ban in public places

The problem of displacement
Contents:
  1. The Ban on Smoking in Public Places
  2. Public-Place Smoking Laws and Exposure to Environmental Tobacco Smoke (ETS)
  3. Need Writing Help?
  4. What our customers say
  5. Total smoking bans effectively help smokers quit, study shows

This contributes to the causes of the various forms of cancer…. Sample 2. Do e-cigarettes really not so harmful for health as traditional cigarettes or this opinion has appeared due to well-thought marketing strategy? It is known the fact that habit is quite a strong phenomenon in human life. There are many habits that are quite easy to get, it can be done even accidentally. However, it can be difficult to break a habit. As far as breaking the habit can be quite difficult, it is common practice to try not to destroy the habit at all but change it in some more positive way.

Nowadays people see such positive way in e-cigarettes as alternatives to the traditional tobacco cigarettes. A popularity of e-cigarettes and their widespread image as a harmless alternative to the traditional tobacco cigarettes could be the reason why there is quite a high number of studies which consider the harmfulness of the e-cigarettes.

However, even though the studies showed that in general e-cigarettes are less harmful than tobacco cigarettes, they are a quite new phenomenon from the historical view, thus their harmfulness is not conclusive.

The main and one of the most obvious argument to support harmless of the e-cigarettes is the fact that in their system it is lack of combustion. An operating principle of e-cigarettes is more like aerosol than the traditional tobacco cigarettes. This can be a reason why, compared to traditional cigarettes, e-cigarettes have less toxicant exposure for their users Callahan-Lyon ii However, comparing e-cigarettes with the traditional cigarettes, one can notice that e-cigarettes have a more complex system and elements that are more saturated with harmful substances.

In this way, product components, and secondhand aerosol of e-cigarettes are more harmful to the users and others that the traditional tobacco cigarettes. However, considering an effect of the e-cigarettes, one can say that it is more positive than the effect of the traditional tobacco cigarettes.

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The Ban on Smoking in Public Places

Thus, e-cigarettes, especially those with nicotine, reduce lung function less than the traditional tobacco cigarettes Harrell et al. Besides, e-cigarettes do not appear to significantly affect complete blood count, in contradistinction to tobacco cigarettes Harrell et al. Callahan-Lyon, Priscilla also noticed that PM emissions from e-cigarettes were fifteen times lower than emissions after use of traditional cigarettes ii In this way, the evidence from above clearly showed that effect of the e-cigarettes could be much less harmful to health than the effect of the traditional tobacco cigarettes.

There is one more fact that must be taken into account in this context. As far as e-cigarettes are considered as less harmful than the traditional tobacco cigarettes, there is a quite high number of people who regard e-cigarettes as a safe alternative or even as aids for treatment from nicotine addiction. One must notice that such approach is not quite correct. The first and the most important fact is that e-cigarettes, even though they are less harmful than the traditional tobacco cigarettes still can harm health.

Even though e-cigarettes are less harmful than the traditional cigarettes, they are not an absolutely safe alternative. Harrell, Paul Truman et al. Considering e-cigarettes as aids for treatment from nicotine addiction one can notice that e-cigarettes are not regulated by The US Food and Drug Administration FDA as drug delivery devices, they are rather regulated as tobacco products Ebbert et al.

Legislative smoking bans for reducing harms from secondhand smoke exposure , smoking prevalence and tobacco consumption. WHO framework convention on tobacco control. Geneva: World Health Organisation; Adda J, Cornaglia F. The effect of bans and taxes on passive smoking.

Am Econ J. Comprehensive smoke-free legislation and displacement of smoking into the homes of young children in Hong Kong. Tob Control. The relationship between local clean indoor air policies and smoking behaviours in Minnesota youth. Association between household and workplace smoking restrictions and adolescent smoking. Prevalence of smoking restrictions and child exposure to secondhand smoke in cars and homes: a repeated cross-sectional survey of children aged years in Wales. BMJ Open. Association between clean indoor air laws and voluntary smokefree rules in homes and cars.

Monson E, Arsenault N. Effects of enactment of legislative public smoking bans on voluntary home smoking restrictions: a review.

Public-Place Smoking Laws and Exposure to Environmental Tobacco Smoke (ETS)

Nicotine Tob Res. Eur J Pub Health.

Persuasive Speech: Smoking Should Be Banned in Public Places

After the smoke has cleared: evaluation of the impact of a new national smoke-free law in New Zealand. J Clin Epidemiol. The harvest plot: a method for synthesising evidence about the differential effects of interventions. Measuring inconsistency in meta-analyses.

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DerSimonian R, Laird N. Meta-analysis in clinical trials. Control Clin Trials. Sterne JA, Egger M. Funnel plots for detecting bias in meta-analysis: guidelines on choice of axis. Viechtbauer W. Conducting meta-analysis in R with the metafor package. J Stat Softw. Active smoking and second-hand-smoke exposure at home among Irish children, Arch Dis Child.

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England's legislation on smoking in indoor public places and work-places: impact on the most exposed children. Household secondhand smoke exposure of elementary schoolchildren in southern Taiwan and factors associated with their confidence in avoiding exposure: a cross-sectional study. BMC Public Health. Trends in children's exposure to second-hand smoke in the INMA-Granada cohort: an evaluation of the Spanish anti-smoking law.

Environ Res. Secondhand smoke exposure and maternal action to protect children from secondhand smoke: pre- and post-smokefree legislation in Hong Kong. PLoS One.


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Impact of smoke-free legislation on children's exposure to secondhand smoke: cotinine data from the health survey for England. Auswirkungen der Nichtraucherschutzgesetzgebung auf die Tabakrauchbelastung von Kindern und auf soziale Ungleichheiten in der Exposition. Changes in child exposure to secondhand smoke after implementation of smoke-free legislation in Wales: a repeated cross-sectional study. Jarvis MJ, Feyerabend C. Recent trends in children's exposure to second-hand smoke in England: cotinine evidence from the health survey for England. Changes in child exposure to environmental tobacco smoke CHETS study after implementation of smoke-free legislation in Scotland: national cross sectional survey.

Linking global youth tobacco survey and data to tobacco control policy in India. J School Health. The impact of tobacco control policies on disparities in children's secondhand smoke exposure: a comparison of methods. Matern Child Health J. Sociodemographic differences among US children and adults exposed to secondhand smoke at home: National Health Interview Surveys and Public Health Rep.

Kuntz B, Lampert T. Social disparities in parental smoking and young children's exposure to secondhand smoke at home: a time-trend analysis of repeated cross-sectional data from the German KiGGS study between and New anti-smoking legislation on second-hand smoke exposure of children in homes. Hong Kong Med J.

Households contaminated by environmental tobacco smoke: sources of infant exposures. Egger M, Smith GD. Misleading meta-analysis.


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  6. Determinants and consequences of smoke-free homes: findings from the international tobacco control ITC four country survey. Impact of national smoke-free legislation on home smoking bans: findings from the international tobacco control policy evaluation project Europe surveys. Benowitz NL. Biomarkers of environmental tobacco smoke exposure. Environ Health Perspect.

    Total smoking bans effectively help smokers quit, study shows

    Comparison of parental reports of smoking and residential air nicotine concentrations in children. Occup Environ Med. Children's exposure to second-hand smoke before and after the smoking ban in Bavaria-a multiple cross-sectional study. Download references. The authors thank Tiara Ratz for performing the execution of literature search and for her support in screening of titles and abstracts, Gesa Lehne for advice on the literature search and quality assessment, and Anna Reinhold for support in data extraction. GB developed the strategy for the review, screened titles and abstracts, conducted quality assessment, supported data extraction, and contributed to writing of the manuscript.

    SN undertook data extraction, conducted quality assessment, performed the meta-analysis and wrote the first draft of this paper. SL supported conduction of meta-analysis and contributed to writing of the manuscript. All authors read and approved the final manuscript.